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Preface

According to the long-term plan accepted by the Editorial Board, in the last days of De-cember 2009, we present to our readers the 21st issue of Polish Journal of Commodity Sci¬ence. We continue the attempts to widen the group of our readers and also in the current issue present some papers in English. As before, each article contains extensive summaries both in Polish and English. The summaries of all the papers are available at our webpage http://www.tpj.pr.radom.pl. The series of 10 papers is opened by Gajewski's work on food irradiation. The paper is written in a communicative and reader-friendly way. The technological process of irradiation of food and its components is discussed from the point of view of safety. In spite of common consumers' fears the Author convinces that according to the literature data the food irradiated for preservation purposes is absolutely safe. The consecutive paper by Kudelka is an overview of the Authors research on the quality of fermented drinks. Bioyoghurts produced from cow and goat milks were analyzed. The main issue of the work was to determine the influence of content on selected sensory parameters of bioyoghurts. It was proved that the material tested was a statistically significant factor diversi¬fying the assessment of consistance, smell, taste and total sensory quality index of the bioyo¬ghurts. The work by Pashova presents the results on changes of qualitative parameters of beer stored in PET packages. The analysis presented in the paper regards the beer available at Bul-garian market. Author proved that changes of various sensory features of beers occurred at various rates during storage in PET bottles. It was concluded that during storage although the color factor of beers increases, most qualitative parameters decrease. In the consecutive paper Smiechowska deals with acidifying substances used to sour food in gastronomy and households. Most often used acidifying agents are: spirit vinegar, wine vinegar, rice vinegar, balsamic vinegar, lemon, lemon juice and citric acid. The results of surveys and customers opinions on application of various acidifiers in households are pre¬sented. Most attention was paid to the new product on Polish market, that is, balsamic vinegar. On the basis of the tests results Author concluded that there is a wide variety of Italian certi¬fied balsamic vinegars on Polish market, but non-certified balsamic vinegars are also avail¬able. The next paper deals with quality of food. Its authors, Grodziiiski, Litwiiiczuk and Florek assessed the quality of beef carcasses produced in Poland using EUROP classification. The authors assessed the trade quality of beef carcasses gained from various categories of adult cattle. From the samples tested only a few percent were assigned to the highest qualitative classes E and U, majority (about 70%) to the middle class O, while almost 1/5 to the lowest one - P. Systems of quality control in healthcare are the subject of the consecutive article. Authors (Borek-Wojciechowska and Klokow) presented the results of the assessment of the systems operating in Warsaw hospitals. It was concluded that the majority of Warsaw hospitals did not have quality control systems. It was also observed that among Warsaw hospitals the ISO certi¬fication system is more popular than accreditation of Quality Monitoring Center (CMJ). It was noticed that in the group of hospitals having ISO certificate and/or CMJ accreditation domi-nated multi-specialist hospitals. In the consecutive paper Kolek presents basic information on factors determining paper whiteness. Author discusses normalized methods of whiteness assessment and presents the results of testing of seven types of paper containing optical brighteners as well as tinting dyes. The comparison of the results of whiteness testing using instrumental methods and sensory assessment was also presented in the work. It was concluded that perception of surface paper whiteness was subjective, depending on the hue. It was observed that in some cases the calcu-lated whiteness is different from the visual assessment. A rapid development of high technology is accompanied in more and more common in-terest in nanomaterials. The consecutive two articles deal with applications of nanomaterials, nanomachines and nanotechnologies. In numerous reports a tight social awareness of societies on nanotechnology is emphasized. On the other hand, the market of nanoproducts continu-ously widens and covers more and more new applications. In the paper by Maltaiiska the nanomaterial market conditions are discussed. The nanomaterial world market was described, in particular, its development within last years. The Author also introduced forecasts of de¬mand on nanomaterials in the coming years. The work of RogoziiVski is devoted to challenges facing commodity science, caused by possible applications of nanomachines and nanomaterials. The Author claims that there is a serious risk caused by new nanomachines. These nanomachines, due to the investors' pres¬sure, can enter the market without proper tests, causing threats. This imposes continuous research on nanotechnology, gathering of knowledge, reliable assessment, keeping the dis¬tance and impartiality. The Author suggests preparation of standards, determinants of quality and safety, methodology ofresearch and safety procedures for nanotechnology products. More and more common use of bio-fuels and bio-fuel additives to conventional fuels re-quires arrangement of quick and efficient methods of quality assessment.. This is a serious challenge for scientists. In the last article of this issue Samson-Bręk and Rutkowska-Filipczak discuss the standardization ofbio-fuels research. The current, 21st, issue of our quarterly is closed by the column "TPJ announcements". One can find there invitations to three conferences: 17th International Symposium IGWT in Bucharest, 5th International Conference on Commodity Science in Radom and 14th Polish Symposium "Practical aspects of spectroscopy methods application today and tomorrow" in Poznaii, as well as the report from meeting of Mazowsze Division of Polish Society of Com-modity Science.

 I wish you a nice reading.

 Editor of TPJ
 Prof, dr hab. inż. Ryszard Zieliński

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