Preface

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According to the long-term plan accepted by the Editorial Board, in the first days of April 2017 we present to our readers the 51st  issue of the Polish Journal of Commodity Science. Continuing the efforts to widen the group of our readers all the papers are published in English. We would like to remind that now, only papers written in English are accepted by the editors. As before, each paper contains a wide summary in both Polish and English. The summaries in both language versions of all the works published one can find on our web page http://www.tpj.uniwersytetradom.pl. Moreover, at the web page an open-access to all the papers published before 2015 is offered.  A series of 14 papers in the current issue of our journal is opened by Suszek work on understanding students' expectations regarding the quality of academic education services. The study was conducted using a questionnaire, which was built using an integrated method of Kano and Servqual. It was found that the most sensitive feature of educational services, with respect to satisfaction and dissatisfaction of students, was the convergence of the educational offer to the current needs of the labor market. In the next paper Pigłowski presents the results of research on the differences in the number of emergency notifications to the Rapid Alert System for Food (RASFF) between EU and non-EU countries, as well as between the EU countries lying in the western and eastern parts of Europe. The correlation between the official controls on the market, and alarm notifications in RASFF in EU countries was investigated. It was found that special attention to such product categories as fish and fish products, materials contacting food, herbs and spices, natural mineral water, poultry meat and poultry meat products should be paid. Among the major threats allergens, heavy metals and pathogenic microorganisms were listed. Borycka and Borycki discuss the issue of rules for marking packages of all these chemicals that are classified as posing threats. Such products include certain household chemicals. The paper presents the legal aspects of labeling chemicals related to chemical safety. Also the rules of labeling in the context of informative function were discussed.  They should ensure the safety of the transportation and use of these chemicals. In the next work Heimowska et al. examine the susceptibility of the polymer prosthetic material containing poly(methyl methacrylate) to liquids simulating the environment prevailing in the human oral cavity. It was proved that poly(methyl methacrylate) was susceptible to degradative effect of the body fluids used. The subject of the research described in the paper by Sawicki is an indication of the possibility of applying modern DNA – based techniques as a source of information to identify the authenticity of food and to determine if there is a problem with adding non-declared horse meat to meat products. Sawicki looks for answers to the question whether molecular techniques can be used in routine control tests for the analysis of food of animal origin. Moreover, the author presents the results of the research in this area and applies them to determine the content of horse meat to other meat products. Modzelewska-Kapituła and Żywica present the results of their research on the sensory quality of eggs and sausages enriched in omega-3 and conventional products available in the market. Products of this type reveal well-documented health-promoting effects. Based on the survey, it was found that even though their sensory quality was seen positively, the products enriched with omega-3 were less preferable than conventional probably due to their specific flavor. Shelf life, safety and quality of the product largely depend on temperature and time of storage, particularly in the case of fresh and minimally processed food. In the next work Biegańska raises issues related to the deterioration of the quality of food resulting from irregularities in the temperature regime in the supply chain, as well as indicators of time and temperature (TTI) to monitor the shelf life of fresh and minimally processed products stored under refrigeration and freezing. The paper presents the results of visual assessment of the color  change of  Monitor MarkTM (3M) indicators under different temperature conditions for various packaging materials used for packaging foods. Although ice cream is a product with high seasonality, their manufacturers take a lot of marketing and organizational measures to reduce its seasonality. Research on consumers preferences of impulse ice creamis the subject of the article by Palka. On the basis of the survey the Author suggests that the impulse ice cream is most popular during summers, a decisive factor in their purchase is still the weather. Nevertheless, consumers are increasingly opting for new, innovative flavors and types of ice cream and are open to more and more proposals. In the next paper Kotarska et al. present the results of research on the antioxidant properties of extracts from various berries such as aronia, blueberry, black currant, red currant, goji berries, raspberry and sea buckthorn. It was concludedthat the type of solvent used and the time of extraction significantly affected the content of antioxidant compounds in the extracts obtained. Derewiaka et al. present the results of their research on selected bioactive components present in hazelnuts, walnuts, peanuts, pistachios and cashew nuts. In all the nuts tested a high content of unsaturated fatty acids, mainly monounsaturated was confirmed. It was shown that beta-sitosterol was a dominating sterol, while  walnuts and hazelnuts could be characterized by the highest content of polyphenolic compounds. In the consecutive work Malinowska and Kiewlicz discuss the results of research on the content of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of three commercial cosmetic extracts from the roots of plants such as liquorice, devil's claw and ratania. It was discovered that the highest content of polyphenolic compounds characterized the extracts of licorice. The issue of the moisturizing ability of baby oils is the subject of research of Klimaszewska et al. The effect of emollient type on physicochemical and functional properties of baby oils was discussed. It was shown that the addition of emollients at the concentration of 10% wt.  did not affect the kinematic viscosity and density of oils significantly, as compared to the base recipe. Additionally, it was found that the introduction of certain emollients to baby oils improved the gloss level of the natural cattle skin, as compared to paraffin oil. Prediction of surfactants toxicity is a challenge for the quality of cosmetic and pharmaceutical materials. From the literature it is known that toxicity is a linear function of the partition coefficient whose setting is experimentally very tedious and difficult – especially for surfactants. Zielinski presents the possibility of predicting the partition coefficient for the anionic and amphoteric surfactants in a model system: n-octanol – water. The procedure of calculation of the quantity was described on the basis of literature data and Author's own research. In contrast to the results obtained using popular computer programs, the method proposed allows to obtain a good fit to experimental data. In the last paper Kowalska et al. present the results of testing the impact of storage temperature and quantity of sesame oil on the stability of the emulsion produced. The following techniques were used: determination the average particle size of the emulsion over time, emulsion morphology analysis and emulsion stability test  – Turbiscan. The techniques used allowed to determine the composition of emulsions containing sesame oil for optimum stability. The 51st issue of the quarterly is closed with the regular column TPJ Announcements. It contains information on scientists who received their habilitation degree in the field of commodity science in 2017. 
 
I wish you a nice reading. 
 

PJCS Editor  Prof. dr hab. inż. Ryszard Zieliński