Preface

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According to the long-term plan accepted by the Editorial Board, in the first days of April 2018 we present to our readers the 55th issue of the Polish Journal of Commodity Science. Continuing the efforts to widen the group of our readers all the papers are published in English. We would like to remind that now, only papers written in English are accepted by the editors. As before, each paper contains a wide summary in Polish and English. The summaries in both language versions of all the works published one can find on our web page http://www.tpj.uniwersytetradom.pl. Moreover, at the web page an open-access to all the papers published up to 2017 is offered. A series of 10 articles in the current issue of our magazine is opened by Wojnarowska's paper on the importance of recycling processes in the circular economy. The article discusses the essence of the ecodesign process and product life cycle. Against this background, the circular economy strategy in the production chain is presented with particular emphasis on the role of recycling. It is proposed, inter alia, to prohibit the storage of biodegradable and recyclable materials (such as paper, glass, metal and plastic) by 2025 and to eliminate the landfill of recyclable waste by 2030. In addition to the adopted 70% target for recycling and preparation of municipal waste treatment infrastructure, a gradual increase in the level of individual recycling is also assumed, so that by 2025 it can reach 90% for paper, 60% for plastics, 80% for wood and 90 % in the case of ferrous metals, aluminum and glass. Moreover, the European Commission assumes that by 2025 member states will reduce the amount of food waste by 30%. In the next paper Lisiecka et al. present the results of their research on the relationship between the maturity of safety management of conventional and functional foods and the profitability of its production. The dependencies presented in the paper were discussed in social, economic and financial terms. The study presents a model based on the results of research carried out in enterprises of the dairy industry. Four variables were tested in this study: maturity and profitability of production, systems for ensuring the safety of conventional food and the production of functional foods. On the basis of research performed it was found that within the studied industry there was a positive relationship between the level of maturity of food safety managementand the economic viability of production. Moreover, there was no such dependence in the social and financial aspect. An additional conclusion from the research is the statement that the level of maturity of food safety management depends on the implemented non-obligatory quality and food safety management systems. In recent years, vegetable raw materials have become an increasingly important source of ingredients beneficial to human health. Attempts to use natural ingredients seem to be quite promising from the point of view of the need to reduce the occurrence of chronic diseases. The subject of Doba and Zmudziński's article are legal aspects and prospects for further development of new foods of plant origin. The article discusses new types of food using Spanish sage, morinda, phytosterols and phytostanols. The authors state that despite many concerns related to the safety of new food products and additives used in traditional cuisine, the results of the research presented in the article give hope that the new food will be accepted by the majority of consumers. Information on the water content in food products is a basic parameter determining their durability. That is why the issue of validating the determination of water content in these products is important in determining their quality. In the next paper, Kowalska et al. present the results of their  research on the validation of water content determination in powdered food products using a moisture analyzer. The paper discusses legal issues related to validation and its basic elements that should be applied in the food industry. The results of tests on the validation of moisture content determination using a moisture analyzer are presented. Special attention was paid to the pro-quality aspect of all the activities. The systematic changes in the content and activity of bioactive components that occur during the storage of plant raw materials can have a significant impact on the stability of the lipid fraction, and thus determine the quality and safety of food. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the directions of these changes and their intensity in order to predict the expected shelf-life of raw materials and food products. The aim of the work by Bińczak and Samotyja was to assess changes in the antioxidant activity of walnut pouch during its one-year storage at room temperature. Based on the determination of the content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids as well as FRAP and DPPH tests of antioxidant activity, high oxidation potential was confirmed during the first 200 days of storage of the tested raw material. A strong positive correlation between the content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids and antioxidant activity during the entire storage period was also observed. The color of food products is an important quality parameter. The factors affecting the color of a particular food product include the main and auxiliary raw materials used (their chemical composition and quantity), the manufacturing technology and the storage conditions of the final product. The color of milk and its products depends primarily on their composition. In the consecutive paper, Pyrzyńska discusses the effect of inulin addition and storage time on the color parameters of fermented beverages from goat's milk. The paper evaluates the effect of the addition of inulin and the storage time of yoghurts from goat's milk on their color parameters. The color parameters of yoghurts produced from goat's milk were determined during their storage using the CIE L * a * b system. The study shows that the addition of inulin to yoghurts has a statistically significant effect on the L * and a * parameters of yogurts made from goat's milk, while the storage time has no statistically significant effect on any of the color parameters tested. Fast access to data on non-food products introduced into European markets that pose a threat to recipients is important for consumer safety. In order to protect the health and safety of consumers for the needs of the member states of the European Union, a rapid information system, RAPEX, was created. In the work of Bielak and Zielińska, leather products registered in the RAPEX system in the years 2004–2017 were analyzed. Authors recognized that the significant share of reports belongs to footwear for adults. Also children's footwear, gloves, clothing, fancy goods and even leather jewelry were reported. It was found that the vast majority of them concerned chemical hazards, while the share of hazards associated with improper footwear construction was low. An important challenge in the quality of cosmetic and pharmaceutical raw materials is the ability to effectively predict the toxicity of the active substances used, in particular – emulsifiers. It is well known that toxicity is a linear function of the partition coefficient value, the determination of which in the experimental way is tedious and very difficult, especially for surfactants. However, the obtained correlations between the toxicity and the value of the partition coefficient are not very satisfactory. In the article, Zielinski presents the possibilities of estimating toxicity of surfactants basing not only on empirical correlations with the calculated values of the partition coefficient in the model system: n-octanol – water, but also on the characteristic volume data and selected topological indexes of surfactant molecules. The work describes in detail the procedure for calculating this quantity based on the analysis of available literature data and the Author's results. The proposed method allows to obtain good compliance with experimental data. In the next paper, Turchinowa et al. present the method of obtaining and usable properties of a new material intended for the adsorption of acidic substances from the natural water environment. An adsorbent based on silica modified with polyoxyethylene isooctyl phenol (SiO2–TX) was obtained and tested with the intention of determining its suitability for solid phase extraction of chlorophenoxyalkanecarboxylic acids. The study shows that the modified adsorbent (SiO2–TX) shows a higher capacity of adsorption of these substances than the commonly used SiO2–C18 sorbent. In the last article Popek presents the results of research on the quality parameters of hard coal from the point of view of the safety of sea transport of this raw material. Coal is often very fragmented, which favors the process of its oxidation and its ability to liquefy. The factors affecting the liquefaction of hard coal are mainly influenced by the particle size of the cargo and the moisture content, which affects the safety of hard coal transport by sea. In the article Author presents the results of research on the relationship between the degree of hard coal fineness and the limit value of humidity (TML), which determines the suitability of coal for transport by sea. The 55th issue of the quarterly is closed by the columnt „PJCS Announcements”. One can find there information on the scientists who received their habilitation degree in 2017. 


I wish you a nice reading
 
 PJCS Editor  Prof. dr hab. inż. Ryszard Zieliński