Preface

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According to the long-term plan accepted by the Editorial Board, in the middle of July 2020 we present to our readers the 64th issue of the Polish Journal of Commodity Science. All the papers are published in English and each paper contains a wide summary in Polish and English. The summaries in both language versions of all the works published one can find on our web page http://www.tpj.uniwersytetradom.pl. Moreover, at the web page an open-access to all the papers published up to 2019 is offered. The series of 9 articles in the current issue of our magazine is opened with Szymusiak's work on the phenomena of compulsive buying and branding. The author reviews the literature data showing the existence of a relationship between compulsive consumer purchases, various branding phenomena and the emotional well-being of consumers. According to the author, the available literature data indicate the existence of a relationship between brand attachment and the emotional well-being of consumers. Consumers who engage in compulsive buying are believed to try to alleviate negative feelings that are temporarily forgotten when making a purchase and replaced by positive feelings. The author states that these conclusions are important as the phenomenon of compulsive buying is very serious, while brand strength begins to play a significant role in both strategic planning of companies and consumers' purchasing decisions. Although compulsive buying and brand attachment are correlated, it is not clear whether this is due to the influence of the brand's popularity or the high quality of the offered products. Although the concept of luxury is difficult to define, it is usually associated with wealth, high price and therefore high quality. Luxury goods are often defined by their own specific features, such as: excellent quality, very high price, rarity and uniqueness, aesthetics, heritage, brand history. Usually, luxury goods are affordable for people with higher incomes. The subject of Palka's research interests is to evaluate the quality of premium luxury ice cream. The paper discusses the results of the organoleptic and physicochemical evaluation of premium ice cream available on the Polish market. It was found that the tested products from different manufacturers differed from each other in terms of organoleptic properties and physicochemical characteristics. The increase in the number of consumers with food allergies or lactose and casein intolerance calls for the development of new high-quality products that can be alternatives to dairy products. One of such proposals may be fermented non-dairy drinks, which are a new generation of products with pro-health properties that are a rich source of microbiota and biologically active substances beneficial for the human body. In the next paper, Gwiazdowska et al. present the results of their research on changes in the content of polyphenolic compounds and microbiological quality occurring during the fermentation process of chokeberry juice with the addition of banana pulp and glucose by selected microorganisms. On the basis of the conducted research it was found that the most intense growth of starter cultures was observed in the juice samples with the addition of glucose, and the type of juice enrichment additive used influenced the content of phenolic compounds in the obtained product. For several years an increase in consumer interest in superfoods has been observed. This is mainly attributed to the high nutritional density of these products and the increase in social awareness of food products with high pro-health values. Goji berries belong to this group and have a high content of substances with antioxidant properties, vitamins, mineral salts, valuable polysaccharides and amino acids. In the next paper, Pawlak-Lemańska et al. present the results of their research on the impact of the harvest period of goji berries from Crete on their antioxidant activity. The antioxidant properties of these fruits was characterized and antioxidant activity by TEAC method as well as total content of polyphenols and flavonoids were determined. There were differences in the antioxidant activity of the examined extracts depending on the month of harvest of goji berries. It was suggested that the observed differences might result from differences in the intensity of sunlight and the amount of rainfall in individual months in given years of harvesting the fruit. The subject of Klimczak's research is the process of non-enzymatic browning of citrus juices. The author analyzed this process during the storage of orange juices under various conditions. Storage tests were carried out for up to 6 months. The degree of browning of orange juices was determined on the basis of changes in the color parameters of the juices, the content of vitamin C and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). It was found that the content of vitamin C in orange juice decreased with increasing storage time and temperature. The presence of HMF in fresh H-orange was not detected, while the concentration of HMF in the juice was shown to increase with the degree of vitamin C degradation, both with increasing storage time and temperature. A high correlation was found between the accumulation of HMF and the color parameters of the tested orange juices. Proper collective and transport packaging are an essential elements of logistics processes without which industry, trade and services could not function properly. In practice, boxes made of corrugated cardboard are used as collective packaging. Thiese packages can fulfill their protective function if they are securely and firmly closed. One of the solutions commonly used is box closing using the so-called hot melt adhesives. Biegańska and Kozak discuss the types, principles of operation and application possibilities of hot-melt adhesives based on specially selected thermoplastic polymers. The work also contains the results of the research on the evaluation of the functional quality of selected hot-melt adhesives available on the market. Fly ash is a low-cost waste that results from the incineration of municipal sewage sludge using the Circulating Fluid Bed Incineration (CFBC) technology. These ashes show a large specific surface resulting in a proper adsorption capacity. In the next paper, Kalak and Kłopotek discuss the results of their research on the possibility of using fly ash generated in the CFBC technology to study the effectiveness of heavy metal ions removal from municipal wastewater. The authors characterized these ashes in terms of organoleptic and physicochemical properties using methods such as elemental composition, fraction analysis, bulk density, grain size distribution, thermogravimetric analysis, texture analysis, specific surface area, pore volume and diameter, pore volume distribution, morphology using scanning electron microscope and ATR FT-IR analysis. The authors used the tested fly ash to remove ions of selected heavy metals from municipal wastewater. Studies have shown that the tested CFBC fly ash is a promising, inexpensive adsorbent that allows effective removal of heavy metal ions from municipal wastewater and may be considered for industrial application in the future. One of the parameters determining the practical usefulness of surfactants in aqueous solutions is the Krafft temperature. This is the temperature above which the solubility of a given surfactant in water increases rapidly, which means that at temperatures below the Krafft temperature, such a surfactant is usually useless. Knowledge of this parameter is particularly important when designing high-quality aqueous compositions containing fluorosurfactants. In the consecutive article, Zieliński presents the results of research on the possibility of calculating the Krafft temperature value for aqueous solutions of anionic fluorosurfactants on the basis of the chemical structure of their molecules. The paper presents the experimental Krafft temperature values available in the literature for aqueous solutions of 27 anionic fluorosurfactants and the author's set of 11 group shares for calculating the Krafft temperature values for these systems. It has been shown that the estimated values of the group shares allow to predict the Krafft temperature values for aqueous solutions of anionic fluorosurfactants with a maximum error of 6.9o C and an average square error of 4.1o C. In the last article, Małysa and Wloskowicz present the results of their research on the quality assessment of new washing-rinse liquids. They propose the introduction of quince vinegar as a polishing ingredient. On the basis of the laboratory and application tests, the authors proved that these products have similar or even more favorable functional properties compared to products made without the addition of quince vinegar and similar products offered on the Polish market. It is noteworthy that the shine of the washed dishes increases with the concentration of quince vinegar in the range of up to 6% of the composition of the composition. The 64th issue of the quarterly closes with the column “TPJ Announcements”. It contains preliminary information about the international conference “Current Trends in Management and Quality Science” planned for September 2021.

I wish you a nice reading

PJCS Editor Prof. dr hab. inż. Ryszard Zieliński